A Guide To The Collision Avoidance Rules Pdf Download
The purpose of an investigation is to determine the circumstances and causes of the collision with the aim of improving the safety of life at sea and the avoidance of future accidents. The purpose is not to apportion liability or blame. Following an investigation the Chief Inspector submits a report to the Secretary of State. The draft is sent to any parties who are criticized and any representations they make are considered before the report is finalized. The report may be published and the Secretary of State must order publication if the report relates to a serious casualty to a UK ship or if it appears that to do so will improve safety of life at sea and help to prevent accidents in the future.
A Guide To The Collision Avoidance Rules Pdf Download
The main purpose of a formal investigation is to determine the cause of the collision in the interests of safety of life at sea but a charge may be made against individuals if this may help to bring about the avoidance of future casualties. All parties to the investigation may be represented by counsel. The Attorney General and other parties may produce witnesses who may be examined, cross-examined and recalled if necessary. After the examination of witnesses all parties may address the wreck commissioner upon the evidence.
For several hundred years there have been rules in existence for the purpose of preventing collisions at sea, but there were no rules of statutory force until the last century. In 1840 the London Trinity House drew up a set of regulations which were enacted in Parliament in 1846. One of these required a steam vessel passing another vessel in a narrow channel to leave the other on her own port hand. The other regulation relating to steam ships required steam vessels on different courses, crossing so as to involve risk of collision, to alter course to starboard so as to pass on the port side of each other. There were also regulations for vessels under sail including a rule, established in the eighteenth century, requiring a sailing vessel on the port tack to give way to a sailing vessel on the starboard tack.
Several important regulations which are still in force were introduced at that time. When steam vessels were crossing so as to involve risk of collision the vessel with the other on her own starboard side was required to keep out of the way. Steam vessels meeting end-on or nearly end-on were required to alter course to starboard. Every vessel overtaking any other had to keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken. Where by any of the rules one vessel was to keep out of the way the other was required to keep her course.
This book provides comment on the Rules, particularly on how they have been interpreted by the courts of the United Kingdom and other countries. Rules 1 to 3 are general rules dealing with application, responsibility and general definitions. Rules 4 to 10 relate to conduct in any condition of visibility including rules on: look-out, safe speed, risk of collision, action to avoid collision, narrow channels and traffic separation schemes.
Safety in the operations of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) depends on the current and future reduction of technical barriers and on the improvements related to their autonomous capabilities. Since the early stages, aviation has been based on pilots and Air Traffic Controllers that take decisions to make aircraft follow their routes while avoiding collisions. RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft) can still involve pilots as they are UAVs controlled from ground, but need the definition of common rules, of a dedicated Traffic Controller and exit strategies in the case of lack of communication between the Ground Control Station and the aircraft. On the other hand, completely autonomous aircraft are currently banned from civil airspace, but researchers and engineers are spending great effort in developing methodologies and technologies to increase the reliability of fully autonomous flight in view of a safe and efficient integration of UAVs in the civil airspace. This paper deals with the design of a collision avoidance system based on a Distributed Model Predictive Controller (DMPC) for trajectory tracking, where anticollision constraints are defined in accordance with the Right of Way rules, as prescribed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for human piloted flights. To reduce the computational burden, the DMPC is formulated as a Mixed Integer Quadratic Programming optimization problem. Simulation results are shown to prove the effectiveness of the approach, also in the presence of a densely populated airspace.
The definition of the collision problem has expanded recently to include runway incursions, and has led to new safety efforts. ASF has placed a runway-incursion training program on AOPA Online. Among the foundation's publications is the Collision Avoidance: Strategies and Tactics Safety Advisor that can be viewed or ordered on ASF's Web site. Many of the tips in this article are taken from that ASF collision avoidance pamphlet.
ASF data indicate that 45 percent of collisions occur in the traffic pattern, and of these, two-thirds occur during approach and landing when aircraft are on final or over the runway. Confusion about the location of aircraft and their landing order often begins earlier in the pattern. As you might expect, operations at nontowered airports offer the greatest risk. You can download ASF's Operations at Nontowered Airports Safety Advisor (PDF, 741KB). 350c69d7ab