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Biotope Free Download

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Biotope Free Download

The quality of materials, the performance of mechanisms or objects directly affect the aquarium ecosystem, its internal environment and longevity. Choose from a variety of decorative items to create incredibly beautiful, unique and unusual environmental biotopes.

Understanding the complex factors and mechanisms driving the functioning of coastal ecosystems is vital towards assessing how organisms, ecosystems, and ultimately human populations will cope with the ecological consequences of natural and anthropogenic impacts. Towards this goal, coastal monitoring programs and studies must deliver information on a range of variables and factors, from taxonomic/functional diversity and spatial distribution of habitats, to anthropogenic stress indicators such as land use, fisheries use, and pollution. Effective monitoring programs must therefore integrate observations from different sources and spatial scales to provide a comprehensive view to managers. Here we explore integrating aerial surveys from a low-cost Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) with concurrent underwater surveys to deliver a novel approach to coastal monitoring. We: (i) map depth and substrate of shallow rocky habitats, and; (ii) classify the major biotopes associated with these environmental axes; and (iii) combine data from i and ii to assess the likely distribution of common sessile organismal assemblages over the survey area. Finally, we propose a general workflow that can be adapted to different needs and aerial platforms, which can be used as blueprints for further integration of remote-sensing with in situ surveys to produce spatially-explicit biotope maps.

Tackling the trade-offs among methods and techniques to map and describe coastal habitats is a key challenge for monitoring programs to provide maximally useful information for marine spatial planning and management6,32. To that purpose, the present study explores the integration of scientific diving and underwater surveys with aerial surveys using a low-cost recreational RPAS to map and provide information on the distribution of sessile biotopes: distinct assemblages of sessile organisms occurring under specific environmental conditions. We used underwater photoquadrat imagery to assess sessile benthic assemblages and RPAS based aerial surveys to construct a georeferenced ortho-photomosaic and a Digital Surface Model (DSM) of a small bay in Madeira Island (NE Atlantic). We then used multivariate statistical routines, aerial imagery photogrammetry, Object Based Imagery Analysis (OBIA) and automated classification to identify and provide information on the presence and distribution of distinct biotopes over different depth-substrate classes within the study area. We further discuss the limitations, benefits and possible improvements of such an approach, and propose some general guidelines for leveraging this strategy towards mapping local coastal habitats and associated biotopes.

Despite all the technological and methodological advances in marine science during the last decades, ecology studies focusing in shallow marine habitats still overwhelmingly rely on manned underwater surveys to collect samples, assess ecological traits and examine biological responses7,9,10,11,12,13,14. Typically more accessible and with more direct pressure from humans, coastal shallow waters have been the target of extensive research and the stage for numerous studies, however, the ability to assess, produce maps or predict distribution of conspicuous organism assemblages residing within specific environmental conditions in coastal waters is still challenging and often limited6,8,39. In this work, we propose a strategy (Fig. 7) that extends the utility of underwater survey data by integrating it with remotely sensed imagery and multivariate statistics to generate maps of benthic assemblages at a small spatial scale (i.e. sub-meter). The strategy relies on well-established methodological principles and statistical approaches17,34,35,36,37,40, but combines them in a unique and novel fashion to assess key physiographic features from low-altitude aerial imagery and employ it to extrapolate the distribution of distinct biotopes to map them over a target survey area.

Workflow blueprint for implementing a coastal habitat mapping novel workflow integrating aerial RPAS based survey and underwater photo-based benthos surveys to identify and predict biotope distribution.

including additional information on biological and environmental conditions (e.g. biotopes with finer-scale taxonomy, temperature and turbidity, marine traffic and coastal development) can provide more detailed community structure or distribution data;

In an era where climate change, overfishing, marine litter, coastal development and other stressors are increasingly threatening marine habitats and biodiversity2,3,48,49 there is an increased need for higher resolution and up to date information on marine habitats to enable effective action and management6,7,15,32,50. This need has also been driving a search for more efficient tools and methods to monitor key biological aspects and stress indicators, such as habitat integrity, physiography, abiotic conditions and biodiversity. Focused on temperate rocky shores, the present study contributes to that call by producing a blueprint (Figs. 2, 7) on how to better integrate low-cost aerial remote sensing and field data to map biotopes and monitor shallow habitats in general (e.g. seagrass, coral reefs), which can be easily included in local, regional or national monitoring programs, international monitoring networks and assist nations in complying with national and international regulations (e.g. monitor progress towards UN Sustainable Development Goal 14, compliance with EU Directive 2008/56/EC) towards a sustainable management of the marine environment. By integrating local in situ data on species composition and discrete organism assemblages, this approach also contributes to increase the level of detail provided in general habitat type classification systems such as the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) habitat types, the EU Habitat Directive Annex I, and the US Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). Finally, the repeated genesis of maps from temporally re-sampled locations can also improve our capacity to chart the change of coastal biotopes through time, a key deliverable in the monitoring of marine ecosystems.

Distance based Linear Modelling (DistLM), with a distance based Redundancy Analysis (dbRDA) plot, was used to assess the shaping of community structure (biota relative abundance in each sample and in each quadrat) by depth classes and substrate categories (normalised) and determine matching of identified biological assemblages to unique environmental conditions (i.e. depth and substrate)36,59,65. The influence of substrate and depth in the structuring of quadrat data was further confirmed by inspecting the correlation of normalised depth and substrate categories with axes of a Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) designed to best discriminate data grouped by sample-generated SIMPROF grouping (i.e. organism assemblages)36,65. Thus, biotopes identified based on conspicuous organism assemblages matching unique depth and substrate conditions were corroborated by DistLM and provide a classification model for extrapolating biotope occurrence over specific depth and substrate conditions36,59,65.

The distribution of the four identified biotopes was extrapolated by selecting all discrete areas (i.e. merged segments) in the maps (produced from aerial imagery analysis and classification) where depth and substrate conditions matched those of each of the biotopes and labelling them accordingly (e.g. all segments with Boulders between 3 and 6 m were labelled as Biotope with assemblage c.). For each biotope, new spatial layers were produced and merged to provide a distribution map and estimate their spatial extent (Supplementary Table S1).

SYNCRA SDC are the latest generation of SYNCRA pumps and are equipped with integrated intelligence systems to meet the needs of advanced recirculating applications. With programming freedom, controllability is finally coupled with power, energy efficiency, inline or submersible use, and low heat production.

After recent years of expeditions in the Amazon, conferences and discus shows around Europe, my personal relationship with Heiko Bleher has developed into a warm and respectful friendship. Most recently in November 2019, I had the pleasure of being invited to his 75th birthday and in the autumn of 2021, it is tentatively planned that we will set off on another great expedition together, up the River Apaporis in Venezuela. This time in the hunt for green discus, as rumor tells should be a population of here.Heiko is an inexhaustible source of knowledge and a pure encyclopedia to be with and despite his relatively old age, he does not shy away from both great challenges and physically demanding balance art in even the toughest stream. If the discus is the king of the aquarium, then Heiko Bleher is the king of the discus. No one in the world knows as much about discus and has written so much about this magnificent fish as Heiko Bleher. Several of our articles contain information provided by Heiko Bleher and images from expeditions you will not find anywhere else.The articles are free and available to you when you need to know more about being an aquarist and team of especially soft-water fish and in particular Discus. The articles are in pdf format and can be saved on your mobile or PC, so they are at hand when you are not online.We are constantly revising and posting new exciting features - upcoming article is about Feed! 041b061a72

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